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Principles of Foundation engineering book


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Principles of foundation engineering book by Braj das is a popular and useful book for civil engineers, specially in field of geotechnical and design of foundation. It briefly explained about different tests of soil and pile along with different other types of foundation. This book has fourteen chapters as below covering all aspects and field of Foundation engineering. You can find the link for download after this content list. Some of pages are blank but you can have many more. SO LOOK AT BOTTOM FOR DOWNLOAD.

1 Geotechnical Properties of Soil 1

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Grain-Size Distribution 2
1.3 Size Limits for Soils 5
1.4 Weight–Volume Relationships 5
1.5 Relative Density 10
1.6 Atterberg Limits 15
1.7 Liquidity Index 16
1.8 Activity 17
1.9 Soil Classification Systems 17
1.10 Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil 25
1.11 Steady-State Seepage 28
1.12 Effective Stress 30
1.13 Consolidation 32
1.14 Calculation of Primary Consolidation Settlement 37
1.15 Time Rate of Consolidation 38
1.16 Degree of Consolidation Under Ramp Loading 44
1.17 Shear Strength 47
1.18 Unconfined Compression Test 52
1.19 Comments on Friction Angle, 54
1.20 Correlations for Undrained Shear Strength, Cu 57
1.21 Sensitivity 57
Problems 58
References 62

2 Natural Soil Deposits and Subsoil Exploration 64

2.1 Introduction 64
2.2 Soil Origin 64
2.3 Residual Soil 66
2.4 Gravity Transported Soil 67
2.5 Alluvial Deposits 68
2.6 Lacustrine Deposits 70
2.7 Glacial Deposits 70
2.8 Aeolian Soil Deposits 71
2.9 Organic Soil 73
2.10 Some Local Terms for Soils 73
2.11 Purpose of Subsurface Exploration 74
2.12 Subsurface Exploration Program 74
2.13 Exploratory Borings in the Field 77
2.14 Procedures for Sampling Soil 81
2.15 Split-Spoon Sampling 81
2.16 Sampling with a Scraper Bucket 89
2.17 Sampling with a Thin-Walled Tube 90
2.18 Sampling with a Piston Sampler 92
2.19 Observation of Water Tables 92
2.20 Vane Shear Test 94
2.21 Cone Penetration Test 98
2.22 Pressuremeter Test (PMT) 107
2.23 Dilatometer Test 110
2.24 Coring of Rocks 113
2.25 Preparation of Boring Logs 117
2.26 Geophysical Exploration 118
2.27 Subsoil Exploration Report 126
Problems 126
References 130

3 Shallow Foundations: Ultimate Bearing Capacity 133

3.1 Introduction 133
3.2 General Concept 133
3.3 Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory 136
3.4 Factor of Safety 140Contents ix
3.5 Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table 142
3.6 The General Bearing Capacity Equation 143
3.7 Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity 148
3.8 Effect of Soil Compressibility 153
3.9 Eccentrically Loaded Foundations 157
3.10 Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric Loading—One-Way Eccentricity 159
3.11 Bearing Capacity—Two-way Eccentricity 165
3.12 Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loading 173
Problems 177
References 179

4 Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations:Special Cases 181

4.1 Introduction 181
4.2 Foundation Supported by a Soil with a Rigid Base at Shallow Depth 181
4.3 Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils: Stronger Soil Underlain by Weaker Soil 190
4.4 Bearing Capacity of Layered Soil: Weaker Soil Underlain by Stronger Soil 198
4.5 Closely Spaced Foundations—Effect on Ultimate Bearing Capacity 200
4.6 Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope 203
4.7 Seismic Bearing Capacity of a Foundation at the Edge of a Granular Soil Slope 209
4.8 Bearing Capacity of Foundations on a Slope 210
4.9 Foundations on Rock 212
4.10 Uplift Capacity of Foundations 213
Problems 219
References 221

5 Shallow Foundations: Allowable Bearing Capacity and Settlement 223

5.1 Introduction 223
5.2 Stress Due to a Concentrated Load 224
5.3 Stress Due to a Circularly Loaded Area 224
5.4 Stress below a Rectangular Area 226
5.5 Average Vertical Stress Increase Due to a Rectangularly Loaded Area 232
5.6 Stress Increase under an Embankment 236
5.7 Westergaard’s Solution for Vertical Stress Due to a Point Load 240
5.8 Stress Distribution for Westergaard Material 241
5.9 Elastic Settlement of Foundations on Saturated Clay (S  0.5) 243
5.10 Settlement Based on the Theory of Elasticity 245
5.11 Improved Equation for Elastic Settlement 254
5.12 Settlement of Sandy Soil: Use of Strain Influence Factor 258
5.13 Settlement of Foundation on Sand Based on Standard Penetration Resistance 263
5.14 Settlement in Granular Soil Based on Pressuremeter Test (PMT) 267
5.15 Primary Consolidation Settlement Relationships 273
5.16 Three-Dimensional Effect on Primary Consolidation Settlement 274
5.17 Settlement Due to Secondary Consolidation 278
5.18 Field Load Test 280
5.19 Presumptive Bearing Capacity 282
5.20 Tolerable Settlement of Buildings 283
Problems 285
References 288

6 Mat Foundations 291

6.1 Introduction 291
6.2 Combined Footings 291
6.3 Common Types of Mat Foundations 294
6.4 Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundations 296
6.5 Differential Settlement of Mats 299
6.6 Field Settlement Observations for Mat Foundations 300
6.7 Compensated Foundation 300
6.8 Structural Design of Mat Foundations 304
Problems 322
References 323

7 Lateral Earth Pressure 324

7.1 Introduction 324
7.2 Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest 325
7.3 Rankine Active Earth Pressure 328
7.4 A Generalized Case for Rankine Active Pressure 334
7.5 Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure 340
7.6 Active Earth Pressure Due to Surcharge 348
7.7 Active Earth Pressure for Earthquake Conditions 350
7.8 Active Pressure for Wall Rotation about the Top: Braced Cut 355
7.9 Active Earth Pressure for Translation of Retaining Wall—Granular Backfill 357
7.10 Rankine Passive Earth Pressure 360
7.11 Rankine Passive Earth Pressure: Vertical Backface and Inclined Backfill 363
7.12 Coulomb’s Passive Earth Pressure 365
7.13 Comments on the Failure Surface Assumption for Coulomb’s Pressure Calculations 366
7.14 Passive Pressure under Earthquake Conditions 370
Problems 371
References 373

8 Retaining Walls 375

8.1 Introduction 375
8.2 Proportioning Retaining Walls 377
8.3 Application of Lateral Earth Pressure Theories to Design 378
8.4 Stability of Retaining Walls 380
8.5 Check for Overturning 382
8.6 Check for Sliding along the Base 384
8.7 Check for Bearing Capacity Failure 387
8.8 Construction Joints and Drainage from Backfill 396
8.9 Gravity Retaining-Wall Design for Earthquake Conditions 399
8.10 Comments on Design of Retaining Walls and a Case Study 402
8.11 Soil Reinforcement 405
8.12 Considerations in Soil Reinforcement 406
8.13 General Design Considerations 409
8.14 Retaining Walls with Metallic Strip Reinforcement 410
8.15 Step-by-Step-Design Procedure Using Metallic Strip Reinforcement 417
8.16 Retaining Walls with Geotextile Reinforcement 422
8.17 Retaining Walls with Geogrid Reinforcement—General 428
8.18 Design Procedure fore Geogrid-Reinforced
Retaining Wall 428
Problems 433
References 435

9 Sheet Pile Walls 437

9.1 Introduction 437
9.2 Construction Methods 441
9.3 Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls 442
9.4 Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Sandy Soils 442
9.5 Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating a Sandy Soil 449
9.6 Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Clay 452
9.7 Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating Clay 457
9.8 Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls 460
9.9 Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Sandy Soil 461
9.10 Design Charts for Free Earth Support Method (Penetration into Sandy Soil) 465
9.11 Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls 469
9.12 Computational Pressure Diagram Method for Penetration into Sandy Soil 472
9.13 Fixed Earth-Support Method for Penetration into Sandy Soil 476
9.14 Field Observations for Anchor Sheet Pile Walls 479
9.15 Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Clay 482
9.16 Anchors 486
9.17 Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Sand 488
9.18 Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Clay ( Condition) 495
9.19 Ultimate Resistance of Tiebacks 495
Problems 497
References 500

10 Braced Cuts 501

10.1 Introduction 501
10.2 Pressure Envelope for Braced-Cut Design 502
10.3 Pressure Envelope for Cuts in Layered Soil 506
10.4 Design of Various Components of a Braced Cut 507
10.5 Case Studies of Braced Cuts 515
10.6 Bottom Heave of a Cut in Clay 520
10.7 Stability of the Bottom of a Cut in Sand 524
10.8 Lateral Yielding of Sheet Piles and Ground Settlement 529
Problems 531
References 533

11 Pile Foundations 535

11.1 Introduction 535
11.2 Types of Piles and Their Structural Characteristics 537
11.3 Estimating Pile Length 546
11.4 Installation of Piles 548
11.5 Load Transfer Mechanism 551
11.6 Equations for Estimating Pile Capacity 554
11.7 Meyerhof’s Method for Estimating Qp 557
11.8 Vesic’s Method for Estimating Qp 560
11.9 Coyle and Castello’s Method for Estimating Qp in Sand 563
11.10 Correlations for Calculating Qp with SPT and CPT Results 567
11.11 Frictional Resistance (Qs) in Sand 568
11.12 Frictional (Skin) Resistance in Clay 575
11.13 Point Bearing Capacity of Piles Resting on Rock 579
11.14 Pile Load Tests 583
11.15 Elastic Settlement of Piles 588
11.16 Laterally Loaded Piles 591
11.17 Pile-Driving Formulas 606
11.18 Pile Capacity For Vibration-Driven Piles 611
11.19 Negative Skin Friction 613
11.20 Group Efficiency 617
11.21 Ultimate Capacity of Group Piles in Saturated Clay 621
11.22 Elastic Settlement of Group Piles 624
11.23 Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles 626xiv Contents
11.24 Piles in Rock 629
Problems 629
References 634

12 Drilled-Shaft Foundations 637

12.1 Introduction 637
12.2 Types of Drilled Shafts 638
12.3 Construction Procedures 639
12.4 Other Design Considerations 645
12.5 Load Transfer Mechanism 646
12.6 Estimation of Load-Bearing Capacity 646
12.7 Drilled Shafts in Granular Soil: Load-Bearing Capacity 648
12.8 Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement 652
12.9 Drilled Shafts in Clay: Load-Bearing Capacity 661
12.10 Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement 663
12.11 Settlement of Drilled Shafts at Working Load 668
12.12 Lateral Load-Carrying Capacity—Characteristic Load and Moment Method 670
12.13 Drilled Shafts Extending into Rock 679
Problems 681
References 685

13 Foundations on Difficult Soils 686

13.1 Introduction 686
13.2 Definition and Types of Collapsible Soil 686
13.3 Physical Parameters for Identification 687
13.4 Procedure for Calculating Collapse Settlement 691
13.5 Foundation Design in Soils Not Susceptible to Wetting 692
13.6 Foundation Design in Soils Susceptible to Wetting 694
13.7 General Nature of Expansive Soils 695
13.8 Unrestrained Swell Test 699
13.9 Swelling Pressure Test 700
13.10 Classification of Expansive Soil on the Basis of Index Tests 705
13.11 Foundation Considerations for Expansive Soils 708
13.12 Construction on Expansive Soils 711
13.13 General Nature of Sanitary Landfills 716
13.14 Settlement of Sanitary Landfills 717
Problems 719
References 720

14 Soil Improvement and Ground Modification 722

14.1 Introduction 722
14.2 General Principles of Compaction 723
14.3 Field Compaction 727
14.4 Compaction Control for Clay Hydraulic Barriers 730
14.5 Vibroflotation 732
14.6 Blasting 739
14.7 Precompression 739
14.8 Sand Drains 745
14.9 Prefabricated Vertical Drains 756
14.10 Lime Stabilization 760
14.11 Cement Stabilization 764
14.12 Fly-Ash Stabilization 766
14.13 Stone Columns 767
14.14 Sand Compaction Piles 772
14.15 Dynamic Compaction 774
14.16 Jet Grouting 776
Problems 778
References 781
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