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Bridge design with worked example


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The construction sector is of strategic importance to the EU as it delivers the buildings and infrastructure needed by the rest of the economy and society. It represents more than 10% of EU GDP and more than 50% of fixed capital formation. It is the largest single economic activity and the biggest industrial employer in Europe. The sector employs directly almost 20 million people. In addition, construction is a key element for the implementation of the Single Market and other construction relevant EU Policies, e.g.: Environment and Energy. In line with the EU’s strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (EU2020), Standardization will play an important part in supporting the strategy. The EN Eurocodes are a set of European standards which provide common rules for the design of construction works, to check their strength and stability against live and extreme loads such as earthquakes and fire. With the publication of all the 58 Eurocodes parts in 2007, the implementation of the Eurocodes is extending to all European countries and there are firm steps towards their adoption internationally. The Commission Recommendation of 11 December 2003 stresses the importance of training in the use of the Eurocodes, especially in engineering schools and as part of continuous professional development courses for engineers and technicians, noting that they should be promoted both at national and international level. In light of the Recommendation, DG JRC is collaborating with DG ENTR and CEN/TC250 “Structural Eurocodes” and is publishing the Report Series ‘Support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes’ as JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. This Report Series include, at present, the following types of reports: 1. Policy support documents – Resulting from the work of the JRC and cooperation with partners and stakeholders on ‘Support to the implementation, promotion and further development of the Eurocodes and other standards for the building sector. 2. Technical documents – Facilitating the implementation and use of the Eurocodes and containing information and practical examples (Worked Examples) on the use of the Eurocodes and covering the design of structures or their parts (e.g. the technical reports containing the practical examples presented in the workshops on the Eurocodes with worked examples organized by the JRC). 3. Pre-normative documents – Resulting from the works of the CEN/TC250 Working Groups and containing background information and/or first draft of proposed normative parts. These documents can be then converted to CEN technical specifications. 4. Background documents – Providing approved background information on current Eurocode part. The publication of the document is at the request of the relevant CEN/TC250 SubCommittee. 5. Scientific/Technical information documents – Containing additional, non-contradictory information on current Eurocodes parts which may facilitate implementation and use, preliminary results from pre-normative work and other studies, which may be used in future revisions and further development of the standards. The authors are various stakeholders involved in Eurocodes process and the publication of these documents is authorized by the relevant CEN/TC250 Sub-Committee or Working Group. Editorial work for this Report Series is assured by the JRC together with partners and stakeholders, when appropriate. The publication of the reports type 3, 4 and 5 is made after approval for publication from the CEN/TC250 Co-ordination Group. The publication of these reports by the JRC serves the purpose of implementation, further harmonization and development of the Eurocodes, However, it is noted that neither the Commission nor CEN are obliged to follow or endorse any recommendation or result included in these reports in the European legislation or standardization processes. xiv This report is part of the so-called Technical documents (Type 2 above) and contains a comprehensive description of the practical examples presented at the workshop “Bridge Design to the Eurocodes” with emphasis on worked examples of bridge design. The workshop was held on 4-6 October 2010 in Vienna, Austria and was co-organized with CEN/TC250/Horizontal Group Bridges, the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the Austrian Standards Institute, with the support of CEN and the Member States. The workshop addressed representatives of public authorities, national standardisation bodies, research institutions, academia, industry and technical associations involved in training on the Eurocodes. The main objective was to facilitate training on Eurocode Parts related to Bridge Design through the transfer of knowledge and training information from the Eurocode Bridge Parts writers (CEN/TC250 Horizontal Group Bridges) to key trainers at national level and Eurocode users. The workshop was a unique occasion to compile a state-of-the-art training kit comprising the slide presentations and technical papers with the worked example for a bridge structure designed following the Eurocodes. The present JRC Report compiles all the technical papers prepared by the workshop lecturers resulting in the presentation of a bridge structure analyzed from the point of view of each Eurocode. The editors and authors have sought to present useful and consistent information in this report. However, it must be noted that the report is not a complete design example and that the reader may identify some discrepancies between chapters. Users of information contained in this report must satisfy themselves of its suitability for the purpose for which they intend to use it. We would like to gratefully acknowledge the workshop lecturers and the members of CEN/TC250 Horizontal Group Bridges for their contribution in the organization of the workshop and development of the training material comprising the slide presentations and technical papers with the worked examples. We would also like to thank the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, especially Dr. Eva M. Eichinger-Vill, and the Austrian Standards Institute for their help and support in the local organization of the workshop. It is also noted that the chapters presented in the report have been prepared by different authors, and reflecting the different practices in the EU Member States both ‘.’ and ‘,’ are used as decimal separators. All the material prepared for the workshop (slides presentations and JRC Report) is available to download from the “Eurocodes: Building the future” website (http://eurocodes.jrc.ec.europa.eu).
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